Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis - references

by Prof. Al Bartlett


1. This paper is based on a series of articles, "The Exponential Function" which is appearing in The Physics Teacher:

(a) Vol. 14, p. 393 (October 1976); (b) Vol. 14, p. 485 (November 1976);
(c) Vol. 15, p. 37 (January 1977);
(d) Vol. 15, p. 98 (March 1977);
(e) Vol. 15, p. 225 (April 1977);
(f) Vol. 16, p. 23 (January 1978);
(g) Vol. 16, p. 92 (February 1978);
(h) Vol. 16, p. 158 (March 1978).

An early version of this paper was presented at the Third Annual UMR-MEC Conference on Energy, held at the University of Missouri at Rolla, Oct. 12-14, 1976, and appears in the volume of the Proceedings of the Conference. The early version, or minor revisions of it have been published in Not Man Apart published by Friends of the Earth: July / Aug. 1977, Vol. 7, No. 14 pp. 12-13; The Vermillion Flycatcher (Tucson, Arizona Audubon Society, December 1977); The Colorado Business Review (Grad. Sch. of Business Admin. of the University of Colorado, Jan / Feb 1978).

2. Newsweek, Dec. 6, 1976.

3. A. A. Bartlett; Civil Engineering, Dec. 1969, p. 71.

4. Time, April 25, 1977, p. 27.

5. W. Von Engelhardt, J. Goguel, M. King Hubbert, J. E. Prentice, R.A. Price, and R. Trumpy; Environmental Geology, Vol. 1, 193-206 (1976).

6. A. A. Bartlett, Proceedings of the Third Annual UMR-MEC Conference on Energy, University of Missouri at Rolla, Missouri, October 12-14, 1976, p. 10.

7. U.S. Energy Resources, a Review as of 1972, a background paper prepared at the request of the Hon. Henry M. Jackson, Chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States Senate, pursuant to Senate Resolution 45: M. King Hubbert, A National Fuels and Energy Policy Study, Serial 93-40 (92-75) Part 1 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1973), $2.35, 267 pages. This document is an invaluable source of data on consumption rates and trends in consumption, for both the U.S.A. and the world. In it Hubbert also sets forth the simple calculus of his methods of analysis. He does not confine his attention solely to exponential growth. He predicts that the rate of rise and subsequent fall of consumption of a resource will follow a symmetrical curve that looks like the normal error curve. Several figures in this paper are redrawn from Hubbert's paper.

8. L. Ruedisili and M. Firebaugh, Perspectives on Energy, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1975).

9. M. King Hubbert, Resources and Man, National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council, (Freeman, San Francisco, 1969), Chapter 8.

10. M. King Hubbert, "Energy Resources of the Earth," Scientific American, Sept. 1971, p. 60. Reprinted as a book (Freeman, San Francisco, 1971).

11. M. Iona, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 15, p. 324 (1977).

12. Emile Benoit, The Coming Age of Shortages, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, January 1976, p. 7. Benoit attributes his information to David Pimintel et al., Food Production and the Energy Crisis Science, Vol. 182, p. 448 (Nov. 2, 1973). This article is the first of three by Benoit (Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Jan., Feb., Mar., 1976,). These are one of the best presentations I have read of coming problems of food, fuels, and resources.

13. Newsweek, Jan. 31, 1977.

14. Factors Affecting the Use of Coal in Present and Future Energy Markets a background paper prepared by The Congressional Research Service at the request of Sen. Henry M. Jackson, Chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States Senate pursuant to Senate Resolution 45, a National Fuels and Energy Policy Study Serial No. 93-9 (92-44) (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1973) pp. 41, 42, 15.

15. "The Energy Crisis" a booklet by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) Oak Ridge, Tennessee, no date, p. 3. (1975 or 1976).

16. Associated Press story "Energy Head Stresses Coal Reserves," in the Boulder Daily Camera, July 5, 1975.

17. "America's Coal: A Gold Mine of Energy," Exxon Corporation two-page full-color ad in Newsweek, 1975.

18. "They're trying to tell us something. We're foolish not to listen," American Electric Power Company, Inc. Two-page ad in Newsweek, 1975.

19. "The call to greater energy independence" American Electric Power Company, Inc., ad in Newsweek, Nov. 3, 1975.

20. "An open letter on energy to those who are still employed." American Electric Power Company, Inc., ad in Newsweek, Jan. 12, 1976.

21. W. H. Miernyk, Journal of Energy and Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 223 (1976).

22. "The Whale Oil, Chicken, and Energy Syndrome," an address before the Economic Club of Detroit by Walter B. Wriston, Chairman, First National City Corporation, Feb. 25, 1974.

23. "The Transitional Storm, Part I, An Explanation," by the Edison Electric Institute for the Electric Companies, in Broadcasting, July 26, 1976.

24. Charles O. Frush, "Moral Basis for Mineral Resource Use and Development Policy" The Mines Magazine, Colorado School of Mines, March 1973, p. 20.

25. J. C. Fisher, "Physics and the Energy Problem," Physics Today, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1974.

26. "Opening Remarks, UMR-MEC Conference on Energy," R. L. Bisplinghoff, Proceedings of the Conference, Oct. 7-9, 1975, University of Missouri at Rolla.

27.Washington Star, Feb. 12, 1977.

28. L. G. Hauser, "Creating the Electric Energy Economy," Proceedings of the Second Annual UMR-MEC Conference on Energy, October 7-9, 1975, p. 3., University of Missouri at Rolla.

29. Gil Bailey, "Conservation - Development Proposed As Solution," Washington Bureau of the Boulder Daily Camera, March 13, 1973.

30. Time, May 19, 1975, p. 55.

31. D. Brower, Not Man Alone, Vol. 6, No. 20, Nov. 1976; Friends of the Earth, 529 Commercial, San Francisco.

32. C. C. Garvin, Jr., Chairman of the Exxon Corporation; Full page ad in the Rocky Mountain News, July 23, 1976.

33. G. Pazik, in a special editorial feature, Our Petroleum Predicament, in Fishing Facts ("The magazine for today's freshwater fisherman"), Northwoods Publishing Co., P.O. Box 609, Menomonee Falls, WI 53051. Nov. 1976. Reprints are available at $0.30 each from the publisher. This is an excellent summary of the present situation and of the way we got into our petroleum predicament.

34. The Arizona Republic, Feb. 8, 1978.

35. "Conservation is like Cholesterol" an ad copyrighted 1976 by the Mobil Oil Corporation.

36. Boulder Daily Camera, April 4, 1977.

37. Boulder Daily Camera, May 16, 1977.

38. U.S. News & World Report, July 25, 1977, P. 8.

39. Boulder Daily Camera, July 10, 1977.

40. Amory Lovins, Energy Strategy, the Road Not Taken, Foreign Affairs, Oct. 1976. This material is now available as a book, Soft Energy Paths; Toward a Durable Peace Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 1977). It is said that this book "could very well be the most important book on energy policy of this decade."

41. W. L. Rogers, Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior, quoted in the Denver Post, Nov. 19, 1976.

42. Time, April 4, 1977, p. 63.

43. Technology Review Dec. 1976, p. 21, reprinted in the second edition of Ref. 8.

44. Robert H. Romer, Energy - An Introduction to Physics (Freeman, San Francisco, 1976), pp. 594-597. In addition to making energy the central theme of an introductory text, this book has 18 appendices (61 pages) of data ranging from "Units and conversion factors" to the "History of energy production and consumption in the world and in the United States" to "Exponential growth" to "Consumer prices of common sources of energy." The book is at once a text and a valuable source of reference data.

45. Melvin Laird, "The Energy Crisis: Made in U.S.A." Reader's Digest, Sept. 1977, P. 56.

46. M. Stanton Evans, Clear and Present Dangers, (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1975).

Reprinted with permission from Bartlett, A., American Journal of Physics, 46(9), 876, 1978. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Association of Physics Teachers. Copyright 1978, the American Association of Physics Teachers.
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